When winter arrives, for some comes the winter blues. The transition from sunny and warm to cold weather can make people experience the winter blues. People may feel sluggish and gloomy and have difficulty focusing.
These symptoms are temporary for many and can be managed by following simple lifestyle changes. But for others, the fall and winter bring on a severe type of depression called seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
SAD is much more than the winter blues. About 5% of the US population experience seasonal affective disorder every year. SAD or seasonal depression can interfere with the ability to function daily, and may impact everything from relationships to work and more.
Despite the seriousness of the condition, it is highly treatable by adopting various techniques and seeking proper medical help.
Seasonal affective disorder, also called seasonal depression, is a type of depression that happens when seasonal changes occur. Usually, symptoms of SAD begin in the fall, continue through the winter months, and subside in spring or early summer. A less common form of seasonal depression can happen in the summer, which begins in late spring or early summer and ends in fall.
The exact cause of seasonal affective disorder remains unknown. Some factors that may contribute to seasonal depression include:
SAD symptoms are similar to depression but are characterized by recurrent seasonal patterns occurring repetitively at a particular time of year.
Seasonal depression symptoms include symptoms associated with major depression and specific symptoms that differ between winter depression and summer depression. The severity of SAD symptoms may vary from person to person.
Risk factors for SAD seasonal depression generally affect people in age groups of 15 to 55 and is more prevalent among women than men. Factors that may increase the risk of seasonal depression include:
Living far from the equator: Seasonal depression is more common among people who live far north or far south from the equator. There is less sunlight during the winter at these latitudes.
Family history: Have blood relatives with SAD or other forms of depression or mental health conditions.
Pre-existing depression or bipolar disorder: People with these disorders may have an increased risk of SAD.
Seasonal depression can be difficult to diagnose because many other types of depression have similar symptoms. If you have symptoms of SAD, see your medical provider for a thorough evaluation. Your doctor may refer you to a psychologist or psychiatrist to evaluate your pattern of symptoms and decide if you have a seasonal affective disorder or another mood disorder. There are no specific blood tests or scans to diagnose SAD.
There are several treatment options available to manage seasonal affective disorder; some are mentioned below:
Light therapy, also known as phototherapy, is a safe, simple, and effective method of replacing lost access to sunlight. Light therapy treatment involves sitting in front of a light therapy lamp for 20-30 minutes every day. The light mimics natural outdoor light and helps reset your circadian rhythm. Light therapy improves SAD by encouraging the brain to increase the production of serotonin (a chemical that affects mood) and reduce the production of melatonin (a chemical that makes you sleepy).
While side effects of light therapy are minimal, be cautious if you have sensitivity to light or are taking medications that increase your sensitivity to light. Speak to your doctor if you are unsure about the suitability of the SAD light therapy lamp.
Psychotherapy, also called talk therapy, is another treatment option for SAD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of talk therapy that utilizes techniques to help people learn how to cope with difficult situations and explore thoughts and behaviors to increase self-awareness.
The therapy can help you learn healthy ways to identify and change negative thoughts, manage stress, and build healthy behaviors, such as increasing physical activity and improving sleep patterns. Studies have shown CBT effectively treats seasonal depression producing long-lasting results.
Antidepressants are often recommended to treat depression and are also used to treat SAD if symptoms are severe. Your doctor may recommend taking antidepressants at the onset of the winter before your symptoms typically begin each year and continue until spring.
Getting sufficient sunlight can help improve your symptoms. Try to spend more time outdoors during the day and also increase the amount of sunlight entering your home or office.
Many people with the seasonal affective disorder often have vitamin D deficiency. A vitamin D supplement may help improve symptoms. If your blood tests indicate vitamin D deficiency, your healthcare provider may start vitamin D supplementation.
In addition to your treatment plan for seasonal depression, there are things you can do yourself to help relieve symptoms. You can take the following steps to manage and even prevent SAD:
If you have symptoms of seasonal affective disorder, speak to your healthcare provider to discuss the best treatment plan to manage your condition. Proactive steps can tackle these mood disorders before they grow worse and more debilitating.
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Hi, I am Sailaxmi Chennuru, a business management graduate who believes life is a beautiful gift to make the most of! The study of medicine has always fascinated me, especially the human anatomy and its complex structure.
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